**Problem**

**Introduction**

This question
would pose a challenge for many students, although theoretically it is within
reach of a good Additional Mathematics student (~ grade 10). Graphs of both
sin

*x*and cos*x*are waves that oscillate up and down. There are many pairs of vertical bars, indicating the absolute values or modulus, and these seem confusing.**Strategy**

Let us
graph the functions

*y*= |cos*x*| and*y*= |sin*x*|. Note that ||sin*x*| – |cos*x*|| = ||cos*x*| – |sin*x*||. The absolute difference of |cos*x*| and |sin*x*| is the difference between them ignoring the negative sign (if any) of the result. And this is just the difference between the higher value and the lower value.
Can you see any repeating patterns? [H04] Can you
visualise the required area? How many
times is that of the basic pattern (known as “

*motif*” in art)? [H09, H10, H11]**Solution**

**Remarks**

Our total
area is made up of four congruent pieces.
When 0

__<__*x*__<__*/*^{p}_{4}, cos*x*is higher than sin*x*. That allows us to strip away all the absolute signs and do the calculation.
H04. Look for pattern(s)

H09. Restate the problem in
another way

H10. Simplify the problem

H11. Solve part of the problem

**Suitable Levels**

*****challenge for GCE ‘O’ Additional Mathematics

*****IB Mathematics SL HL

*****GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Mathematics

*****IB Mathematics HL

*****AP Calculus AB & BC

* University / College calculus

* other syllabuses that involve integration
and area

* whoever is game for a challenge in
integration

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