## Wednesday, December 23, 2015

### [H2_VJC2015PromoQ10_IAXS] Volume of a Doughnut

Problem

Introduction
This is a problem involving the calculation of the volume of solid of revolution of an enclosed region.   The junior colleges (or senior high schools) like to set this type of question.

Technique
If the axis of revolution is the  y-axis, the basic formula is   ò px² dy   with the appropriate lower and upper limits.  Notice that this only works for the region between one curve and the axis and when rotated, this will generate a solid with no hollow parts.  An enclosed region, however, consists of two curves.  In our case, when we make  x  the subject, we find that we have two choices.  One of them leads to a curve that is further away from the axis of rotation.  I call that the outer curve.  The other curve is the inner curve, and this is nearer the axis of rotation.  We need to subtract the volume generated by the inner curve from that generated by the outer curve.

Solution

Remarks
In this example, the curve on the right happens to be the outer curve.  If the equation were
(x + 93)² + y² = 15²,  the circular region would be on the left of the  y-axis and the outer curve would be on the left.
For your information, the above solid of revolution is a torus.  This is the shape of a doughnut, (or hoopla-hoop, circular tube, or Polo mint perhaps?).  It is the inner curve that gives the hole in the “doughnut”.
You can imagine in your mind’s eye that as the circular disk revolves around the  y-axis, its centre traces out a circular path of  93 units.  By the Second Centroid Theorem of Pappus,
volume = length of path of centroid × area of cross section = 2p(93) × p(15)² =  41850p²
In general, the volume of a torus with major radius  R  and minor radius  r  is
volume = 2pR × pr² =  2Rr²p²
If you know this fact, you use it to check your calculations.  Although this is not in the H2 Syllabus, but it is something interesting to explore.

H02. Use a diagram / model
H04. Look for pattern(s)
H05. Work backwards                                [e.g. making  x  the subject]
H09. Restate the problem in another way  [symmetry: volume is twice of upper half]
H10. Simplify the problem                         [integration by substitution]
H11. Solve part of the problem
H13* Use Equation / write a Mathematical Sentence

Suitable Levels
GCE ‘A’ Levels H2 Mathematics
* IB Mathematics HL (Applications of Integration)
* Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus AB & BC
* University / College Calculus
* other syllabuses that involve Applications of Integration
* any precocious or independent learner who loves to learn